A gallstone extracted from the mummified body of a 16th-century Italian prince has been used to reconstruct the first ancient genome of E. coli — showing how the infamous superbug has evolved over the course of 400 years.

If you think of the Greek of the precious crown, a 400 -year biliary stone is probably not what happens!

However, a team of scientists found something very precious in the calcified bullets extracted from a gallbladder from the Italian prince of the 16th century.

The remains of the first E. coli proved to be present and researchers at McMaster University in Canada used them to rebuild the first old genome of bacteria.

This can act as a “point of comparison” to tell us information about how the infamous super bacterial has evolved in the past 400 years.

The results, published today in the magazine

Giovani’s mummified remains were found in 1983 of the Abbey of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples, as well as those of other Italian nobles of the Renaissance period.

The Noble Napolitano, died in 1586 at the age of 48, would have had a chronic infection of the gallbladder due to gallstones.

The most important author of the study, George Long, said: “When we investigated these remains, there was no evidence that this man had E. coli.

“Unlike an infection like smallpox, there are no physiological indicators. No one knew what it was.

E. coli, or Escherichia coli, can infect organs that contribute to the production and transport of bile, including gallbladder.

It is capable of emitting an enzyme which can transform bilirubin, a chemical which is produced during the normal degradation of hemoglobin, in calcium salts, the first stage of the formation of pigment stones.

In addition to contributing to the formation of bile calculations, E. coli can cause food poisoning, diarrhea, urinary tract infections and pneumonia.

He is known as a “dinner”: a bacteria that lives in the United States. And he can act as an opportunistic pathogen that his guest infects during periods of stress, which underlies the disease or immunodeficiency.

E. coli is also known to be antibiotic resistant, which gives it its title of “Superbucado”.

The researchers had to carefully isolate the fragments of objective bacteria, which were demolished by the environmental pollution of various sources.

They used the restored equipment to rebuild the first old e -e. Coli

However, the research team explained that complete scalable history remains a mystery, even when it has received resistance to antibiotics.

The head of the study, Professor Hendrik Painar, said that a strict accent for pathogens who provoke pandemic as the only history of mass portality in our past is the great burden that comes from the municipalities of opportunistic municipalities Motivated by the stress of lived life. †

The evolutionary geneticist, Professor Painar, of the University of McMaster of Canada, who led research, said: “E. Modern coli is often found in the intestines of healthy people and animals.

“Although most forms are harmless, some tribes are responsible for serious, sometimes fatal epidemics, food poisoning and infections in the bloodstream. Rustic and adaptable bacteria are recognized as particularly resistant to treatment.

He explained that the genome of a 400 -year -old ancestor from modern bacteria offers researchers a “comparison point” to study how he has evolved and adapted since then.

He explained that technological performance is particularly remarkable because E. coli is “complex and omnipresent”, which not only lives in the field, but also in our own microbiomas.

Professor Erick Denamur, of the University of Paris Diderot, said: “ It was so moving to write this old E. coli and to take into account that even if it was even in a fylogenetic line that was characteristic Comments that still cause GAL calculations today. †

He added a long time ago: “We could identify what an opportunistic pathogen was, discover how the genome works and offer guidelines to help researchers who can explore other hidden pathogens.”

For more details, watch the following video

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